29th Annual Health Law Symposium: Coping with Health Care Market Concentration
Friday, April 7, 2017 - 8:45am to 3:45pm
Saint Louis University School of Law Center for Health Law Studies and Saint Louis University Journal of Health Law & Policy present the 29th Annual Health Law Symposium: 'Coping with Health Care Market Concentration.'
This day-long conference explored issues relating to market concentration and competition in the health care sector. Nationally recognized experts in health care policy and law, representatives of leading providers in the St. Louis region, and academics specializing in health and antitrust law addressed the rapidly changing business, legal and regulatory landscape. Participants also addressed how shifting policies at the federal and state level will impact health care markets.
5.5 MO CLE Credits Available.
Opening Remarks, Session One
8:45 a.m. - 9 a.m. – OPENING REMARKS
Rob Gatter, J.D.
Professor of Law SLU LAW
Co-Director, Center for Health Law Studies
Thomas (Tim) Greaney, J.D.
Chester A. Meyers Professor of Law, SLU LAW
Co-Director, Center for Health Law Studies
9 a.m. - 10:20 a.m. -- SESSION ONE
Moderated by Elizabeth Pendo, J.D., Joseph J. Simeone Professor of Law, SLU LAW
The Anticompetitive Potential of Cross-Market Mergers in Healthcare
Jaime S. King, J.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Law, UC Hastings College of Law
Co-Director of the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Science, Law and Health Policy
Competition as Policy Reform: Antitrust, Market-Governance Rules, and Incentives
Emilio Varanini, J.D.
Deputy Attorney General, Antitrust Section
California Attorney General’s Office
How (And Why) to Address Health Care Prices through Private Antitrust Enforcement
Anne Marie Helm, J.D.
Co-founder, The Source on Healthcare Price & Competition,
UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy
10:20 a.m. - 10:35 a.m. -- BREAK
10:35 a.m. - 11:55 a.m. -- SESSION TWO
Moderated by Sidney Watson, Jane and Bruce Robert Professor, SLU LAW
When is Competition Not Competition?: The Case of Medicare Advantage
Robert A. Berenson, M.D.
Institute Fellow, Urban Institute
Lecturer, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University
Taking the Vitals of the Medicaid Managed Care Marketplace
Zack Buck, J.D.
Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee College of Law
Coping with Concentration
Thomas (Tim) Greaney, J.D.
Chester A. Meyers Professor of Law, Saint Louis University School of Law
Co-Director, Center for Health Law Studies
11:55 p.m. - 1:15 p.m. -- LUNCH
1:15 p.m. - 2:20 p.m. -- SESSION THREE
Moderated by Kelly Dineen, J.D., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Health Law & Ethics, SLU LAW,
Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics, Co-Director, Bander Center for Medical Business Ethics
State Insurance Department Review of Health Insurance Mergers: Law and Practice
Jay Angoff, J.D.
Attorney, Mehri & Skalet PLLC
Competition and Measuring Carrier Efficiency
Scott Vogt, MBA
Senior Vice President, Director of Client Services, Lockton Companies
2:20 p.m. - 2:35 p.m. -- BREAK
2:35 p.m. - 3:35 p.m. -- SESSION FOUR
Moderated by Ron Levy, Executive-in-Residence, SLU College for Public Health & Social Justice
Richard J. Liekweg, President, BJC HealthCare
Chris Howard, President of Hospital Operations, Executive Vice President, SSM Health
Jeffrey Johnston, President, Mercy Hospital St. Louis
3:45 p.m. -- Reception in Pavilion
JAIME S. KING, J.D., Ph.D.Professor of Law, UC Hastings College of Law Associate Dean and Co-Director of the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Science, Law and Health Policy,Co-Director, UCSF/UC Hastings Masters Program in Health Policy and Law, Executive Editor, The Source on Healthcare Price and Competition
Professor Jaime S. King is the co-director of the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Science, Law and Health Policy, the executive editor of The Source for Competitive Healthcare, and the co-director of the Concentration on Law and Health Sciences. Professor King’s research examines some of the most complex challenges facing the U.S. healthcare system. An advocate for health reform, Professor King focuses on the drivers of healthcare costs, with a special interest in market consolidation and efforts to improve transparency in healthcare pricing. In conjunction with Consortium Senior Fellow, Anne Marie Helm, her research lead to the creation of The Source for Competitive Healthcare, a multi-disciplinary web-based resource for information and analysis about healthcare cost and competition. Professor King’s scholarship also examines questions of individual autonomy and the states’ police power. Specifically, she focuses on medical decision making and constitutional and regulatory questions regarding reproductive genetic testing. Currently, she is collaborating with UCSF faculty and UC Hastings alumni to examine the legal and ethical implications of conducting whole exome sequencing on newborns. Prior to joining the faculty at UC Hastings, she served as a Fellow at the Center for Law and the Biosciences at Stanford Law School (2006-2008) and the American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics (2005-2006). In 2012, she was named the John “Jack” Wennberg Fellow for the Informed Medical Decisions Foundation. Professor King’s work has been published in Nature, the UCLA Law Review, the Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, the American Journal of Law and Medicine, the Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, Health Affairs, the William and Mary Policy Review, the Hastings Law Journal, the Rutgers Law Journal, Hastings Womens’ Law Journal, Prenatal Diagnosis, and Human Reproduction. Her work has also been referenced in the New York Times, the Atlantic Monthly, and Slate Magazine.
EMILIO VARANINI, J.D.Deputy Attorney General, Antitrust Section California Attorney General’s Office
Emilio E. Varanini is a deputy attorney general in the Antitrust Section of the California Attorney General’s Office who advises his Office and state agencies on health care competition policy issues and works on health care competition investigations. He has an economics degree with general distinction from the University of California at Berkeley and a law degree from the University of California at Los Angeles. He is the co-chair of the Health Care Committee of the National Association of Attorneys General’s Antitrust Task Force. Emilio co-authored an article on Accountable Care Organizations (“ACO”) that was published in the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. He was the lead author of the multistate St. Luke’s amicus brief filed in 2014 in the Ninth Circuit and of the multistate Hershey amicus brief filed in 2016 in the Third Circuit. He also represented California in Phase II of the Anthem-Cigna merger trial by participating in that part of the trial in Washington, D.C. in December 2016.
ANNE MARIE HELM, J.D.Co-founder, The Source on Healthcare Price & Competition, UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy
Anne Marie Helm, J.D., is a consultant to the Source on Healthcare Price & Competition, an independent, nonprofit initiative of the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy that serves as a multi-disciplinary resource for information and analysis about healthcare price and competition. She co-founded the Source with Professor Jaime King in 2012, and served as its managing editor until 2016. Ms. Helm has taught health law as an adjunct professor at UC Hastings, and now works in the administration there as chief of staff to the chancellor & dean. Prior to coming to UC Hastings, Ms. Helm practiced litigation for several years in New York and Washington, D.C. She holds a J.D. from Emory University and a B.A. from the University of Virginia.
ELIZABETH PENDO, J.D.Moderator, Joseph J. Simeone Professor of Law, Center for Health Law Studies, SLU LAW
Elizabeth Pendo is the Joseph J. Simeone Professor of Law at Saint Louis University School of Law and previously served as vice dean for five years. She has a secondary appointment as professor of health management and policy at Saint Louis University School of Public Health, and is a member of the Center for Health Law Studies and the William C. Wefel Center for Employment Law at the School of Law. She teaches courses in disability law, bioethics and civil procedure and has lectured on bioethics, health law and disability issues at SLU’s Department of Medicine, Department of Health Care Ethics and the College of Education and Public Service. Pendo is a nationally recognized expert in disability law and health care law. Her scholarship focuses on the difference disability makes in places in our society such as the health care system and the workplace, with a particular interest in legal and social meanings of disability. She published a series of articles exposing inaccessible medical equipment as a barrier to care, including Reducing Disparities through Health Care Reform: Disability and Accessible Medical Equipment, 4 Utah L. Rev. 1057 (2010) and Disability, Equipment Barriers and Women’s Health: Using the ADA to Provide Meaningful Access, 2 St. Louis Univ. J. Health L. & Pol’y 15 (2008). Other projects include civil rights and health care reform approaches to health disparities for people with disabilities; models of disability and their impact on health care; public right-of-way and accessibility issues in the City of Saint Louis; and genetic testing in the workplace, and its intersections with classifications based on gender, race, class and disability. Dean Pendo has published with a number of law journals and peer-reviewed journals across the country, and frequently submits testimony and comment to federal agencies and legislatures on issues relating to her work. She is an elected member of the American Law Institute, and the recipient of the YWCA Leadership Award, and the Women’s Justice Legal Scholar Award awarded to women faculty members or administrators who fulfill the ideals of the legal profession through their own work with the justice system, through their research or scholarship, or through teaching and inspiring others. She is also the first recipient of the University Student Government Association Faculty Excellence Award for Diversity and Social Justice.
ROBERT A. BERENSON, M.D.Institute Fellow, Urban Institute; Lecturer, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University
Robert Berenson joined Urban as an Institute fellow in 2003. In this position he conducts research and provides policy analysis primarily on health care delivery issues, particularly related to Medicare payment policy, pricing power in commercial insurance markets, and new forms of health delivery based on reinvigorated primary care practices. In 2012, Berenson completed a three-year term on the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, the last two years as vice chair. From 1998 to 2000, he was in charge of Medicare payment policy and private health plan contracting in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Previously, he served as an assistant director of the White House Domestic Policy Staff under President Carter. Berenson is a board-certified internist who practiced for 20 years, the last 12 years in a Washington, D.C., group practice. While practicing he helped organize and manage a successful preferred provider organization serving the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. He is coauthor of The Managed Care Blues & How to Cure Them with Walter Zelman, and Medicare Payment Policy and the Shaping of U.S. Health Care, with Rick Mayes. He publishes frequently in numerous publications, including the New England Journal of Medicine, Health Affairs, New York Times, and New Republic. Berenson is a graduate of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, a fellow of the American College of Physicians, and on the faculty at the George Washington University School of Public Health.
ZACK BUCK, J.D.Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee College of Law
Professor Zack Buck specializes in health law, and his scholarship examines governmental enforcement of laws affecting health and health care in the United States. Most recently, his writing has sought to evaluate how the enforcement of health care fraud and abuse laws impacts American quality of care, with a particular focus on the legal regulation of overtreatment. Over the last five years, his work has been published in the California Law Review, Boston College Law Review, Ohio State Law Journal, Maryland Law Review, Florida State Law Review, and U.C. Davis Law Review, among others. In 2017, Professor Buck was recognized as the UT Law Wilkinson Junior Research Professor and received the Marilyn V. Yarbrough Faculty Award for Writing Excellence for his piece, Furthering the Fiduciary Metaphor. In 2013, he was selected as a Health Law Scholar and participated in the ASLME Health Law Scholars Workshop at Saint Louis University School of Law. Professor Buck is also a regular contributor to Bill of Health, a blog maintained by Harvard University’s Petrie-Flom Center, and to the online journal, Jotwell. Before joining UT, Professor Buck was an assistant professor at Mercer University School of Law in Macon, Georgia. He has also served as a visiting assistant professor at Seton Hall University School of Law in Newark, New Jersey, and as an Arthur Littleton and H. Clayton Louderback Legal Writing Instructor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Law. He formerly practiced complex commercial litigation at Sidley Austin LLP in Chicago. At UT, Professor Buck teaches Bioethics and Public Health Seminar, Torts II, Health Care Finance and Organization, Health Care Regulation and Quality, and Fraud and Abuse.
THOMAS (TIM) GREANEY, J.D.Chester A. Meyers Professor of Law, Saint Louis University School of Law; Co-Director, Center for Health Law Studies
A nationally recognized expert on health care and antitrust law, Professor Thomas (Tim) Greaney has spent the last two decades examining the evolution of the health care industry and is a vocal advocate for reforming the health care system and protecting consumers. He also has a strong interest in comparative antitrust law, having been a Fulbright Scholar in Brussels and a visiting lecturer at several European law schools. After graduating from Harvard Law School, Greaney began his career as a legislative assistant on Capitol Hill and as a law clerk with the Federal Communications Commission. He then moved on to the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice where he was a trial attorney and became the assistant chief in charge of antitrust matters in health care. His career at Justice spanned ten years and involved him in civil and criminal antitrust litigation in health care, banking, communications and other regulated industries as well as policy formulation and legislative matters. Greaney came to SLU LAW in 1987 after completing two fellowships and a visiting professorship at Yale Law School. Professor Greaney became Chester A. Myers Professor of Law in 2004 and was named Health Law Teacher of the Year by the American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics in 2007. His academic writing has been recognized six times by the Thompson Coburn Award for SLU Faculty scholarship. Professor Greaney's extensive body of scholarly writing on health care and antitrust laws encompasses articles published in some of the country's most prestigious legal and health policy journals. Professor Greaney has authored or co-authored several books, including the leading health care casebook, Health Law. A frequent speaker in academia and the media, Professor Greaney has also offered expert testimony at hearings sponsored by the Federal Trade Commission on the issues of applying competition law and policy to health care, and submitted invited testimony to the U.S. Senate on competition policy and health care reform. He has also testified several times before the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives and has submitted invited testimony to the U.S. Senate on issues regarding competition and regulation in the health care sector.
SIDNEY D. WATSON, J.D.– Moderator Jane and Bruce Robert Professor, Saint Louis University School of Law, Center for Health Law Studies
Professor Watson is a specialist in health law and health care access for the poor. She has spent her legal career advocating on behalf of low-income people, both as a legal services lawyer and as a law professor. From 1977 to 1981, Professor Watson was director of clinical education at Tulane University School of Law. She founded both Tulane’s Law Clinic and its Trial Advocacy program. From 1980 to 1987, Watson was a legal services lawyer in Louisiana and Alaska. In Louisiana, she served as managing and senior attorney in the health, welfare and elderly units of the New Orleans Legal Assistance Corporation. She was also director of the Farmworkers Legal Assistance Project, a statewide legal services program representing migrant and seasonal farm workers. She spent three years in Dillingham, Alaska, as the supervising attorney of the Alaska Legal Services Corporation Bristol Bay office, a circuit riding through 32 native villages throughout southwest Alaska. Currently, Professor Watson is advocating for better access to quality, affordable health insurance and health care by serving as policy and legal advisor for a statewide coalition of grassroots consumer health advocates. She has received funding from the Missouri Foundation for Health to support this work and the school’s Grassroots Health Law, Policy and Advocacy course that allows students to do grassroots health policy work on behalf of consumers. Professor Watson joined the School of Law in 2001 as a full professor. Previously, she was on the faculty at Mercer University School of Law, where she taught for 14 years. Watson has been a visiting scholar and professor at Seton Hall University School of Law and Saint Louis University School of Law. She is on the faculty of the School’s Center for Health Law Studies and is the Jane and Bruce Robert Professor of Law. Professor Watson is a frequent speaker to consumer, disabilities rights and children’s groups about the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid and access to care. She has written more than 50 law review and other scholarly articles on racial and ethnic disparities in health care, health reform, Medicaid, and health care for those who are homeless. She is editor of the book, Representing the Poor and Homeless: Innovations in Advocacy. She also authored the book, An Advocate’s Guide to Missouri MC+/Medicaid for People with Disabilities and three editions of the book, A Georgia Advocate’s Guide to Health Care. Professor Watson was named Jay Healey Health Law Professor of the year in 2012. She has also received the Equal Justice Award from Legal Services of Eastern Missouri, for outstanding public service on health care issues impacting the low-income community. She was Co-Counsel for Amicus before the U.S. Supreme Court in N.F.I.B v Sibelius, co-drafting a brief in support of the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act’s Medicaid expansion. She was also co-counsel for plaintiffs in Lankford, et al., v Sherman, a successful challenge to the State of Missouri policy eliminating Medicaid coverage for medical equipment and supplies for adult Medicaid beneficiaries. She is a former member of the Rural Research Policy Institute Health Panel and a former member of the ABA Commission on Homelessness and Poverty.
JAY ANGOFF, J.D.Attorney, Mehri & Skalet PLLC
In December 2012, former Missouri Insurance Commissioner and Affordable Care Act implementation director Jay Angoff returned to Mehri & Skalet after three years with HHS. In March 2010 Mr. Angoff was appointed to serve as the Director of the new HHS Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight. His responsibilities included developing the new regulations governing the individual and small group markets, including the Patient’s Bill of Rights, Medical Loss Ratio rule and Rate Review rule; implementing the Rate Review, Consumer Assistance and Exchange grant programs; and establishing the Early Retiree Reinsurance Program and Preexisting Condition Insurance Plan. Mr. Angoff also served at HHS as the Senior Advisor to the Secretary and as the HHS Regional Director for Region VII, headquartered in Kansas City.
Before serving at HHS Mr. Angoff was in private practice, first in Jefferson City, Missouri with Roger Brown & Associates, and then in Washington, DC with Mehri & Skalet. Cases in which Mr. Angoff served as class counsel include Landers v. Interinsurance Exchange of the Automobile Club (LA County, Cal., $24 million settlement), Clutts v. Allstate (Madison County, Ill., $6 million settlement), and Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights v. GEICO (LA County, Cal., settlement valued at up to $12 million). All three cases involved overcharges resulting from unauthorized rating factors. Mr. Angoff currently represents individuals and non-profit organizations on ACA- and other insurance-related matters. He has also consulted for state Insurance Departments and represented consumers and insurance agents before Departments, and has advised hospital associations, investment banks, and the plaintiff’s bar.
Between 1993 and 1998 Mr. Angoff served as director of the Missouri Department of Insurance. There he became one of the first Insurance Commissioners to order a traditionally non-profit Blue Cross plan to establish a healthcare foundation with the full value of its assets. He also helped implement an Exchange for state workers, which reduced their health insurance rates by up to 45%. And he established a competitive bidding process for workers compensation insurers that reduced workers comp rates by 24%. He also oversaw and accelerated the run-off of the Transit Casualty and Mission insolvencies, two of the largest and longest-running insurer insolvencies in the nation.
Prior to coming to Missouri, Mr. Angoff served as Deputy Insurance Commissioner of New Jersey and Special Assistant to the Governor for Health Insurance Policy. In those positions, he helped draft and implement New Jersey’s individual and small group reform laws. Mr. Angoff began his career as an antitrust lawyer with the Federal Trade Commission. He also served as a staff attorney for Congress Watch, a public interest lobbying organization, as counsel to the National Insurance Consumer Organization, and as vice president for Strategic Planning for Quotesmith.com (now insure.com), an internet quotation service and insurance broker. He has written for The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal, among other publications. He is a member of the District of Columbia, Missouri, New Jersey, and U.S. Supreme Court bars, and is a graduate of Oberlin College and Vanderbilt Law School.
SCOTT VOGT, MBASenior Vice President, Director of Client Services, Lockton Companies
Mr. Vogt’s role within Lockton is as a unit manager. In that role Vogt works with the account executives and account managers within the unit to insure the highest standards for service and consultative advice are met. His responsibilities include assisting in the management of Lockton’s employee Benefits Department. Vogt has been at Lockton since 2002, after gaining experience in the insurance industry with General American Life Insurance Company and Marsh U.S.A. Vogt has earned his Fellow Life Management Institute (FMLI) and Health Insurance Associate (HIA) designations. He is currently working toward his Certified Employee Benefits Specialists (CEBS) designation. Mr. Vogt earned his M.A. and M.B.A. from the Olin School of Business at Washington University in St. Louis and his B.S. in Business Administration from Southern Illinois University.
RICHARD J. LIEKWEGPresident, BJC HealthCare
As president of BJC HealthCare, Richard J. Liekweg is responsible for advancing operational and clinical excellence across all of BJC’s hospitals, service organizations and shared services departments. BJC HealthCare is one of the nation’s largest nonprofit health care organizations with nearly $5 billion in net revenues and more than 31,000 employees in the greater St. Louis, southern Illinois and mid-Missouri regions. Its teaching hospitals, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St. Louis Children’s Hospital, are affiliated with internationally renowned Washington University School of Medicine. Liekweg joined BJC HealthCare in 2009 as president of Barnes-Jewish Hospital at the Washington University Medical Center and group president for BJC HealthCare. In addition to leading Barnes-Jewish Hospital, he was also responsible for ensuring the success of four other BJC hospitals and chairing the steering committee for the 10-year Washington University Medical Center campus renewal project. Before joining BJC, Liekweg served as chief executive officer and associate vice chancellor for the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Medical Center. In this position, he was responsible for overall management of the university’s academic medical center. Liekweg also spent more than 16 years in positions of increasing responsibility at Duke University Health System, including serving as chief executive officer of Durham Regional Hospital. He holds a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Virginia and master’s degrees in health services administration and business administration, both from the University of Michigan. He serves on a number of professional and community boards including Vizient; Association of American Medical Colleges Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH); Forest Park Forever and the St. Louis College of Pharmacy Board of Directors. Liekweg and his wife, Stacey, have one daughter.
CHRIS HOWARDPresident of Hospital Operations; Executive Vice President, SSM Health
As president of hospital operations/executive vice president, Chris Howard is focused on ensuring SSM Health hospitals in Illinois, Missouri, Oklahoma and Wisconsin deliver exceptional clinical quality, safety and service for every patient. Howard has more than 20 years of experience in health care administration, with special expertise working with medical staffs. In July 2013, he began his current role overseeing operations for all SSM Health hospitals. All regional hospital presidents and freestanding hospital presidents report to Howard. He joined SSM Health in 1995 and formerly served as executive vice president of SSM Health in Oklahoma and Healthfirst Physician Management Services. Prior to that, Howard held positions with Healthcare Systems of Oklahoma and Integris Baptist Medical Center, both in Oklahoma City. Howard received a bachelor of arts degree in organizational communication and a master’s in organizational communication, both from the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Okla. He also has a master's degree in health administration from the University of Oklahoma-College of Public Health in Oklahoma City.
JEFFREY JOHNSTONPresident, Mercy Hospital St. Louis
Jeff Johnston was named president of Mercy Hospital St. Louis in September 2011. Prior to that, he was president of Mercy Hospital Fort Smith (Ark.), for three years, where he was instrumental in expanding Mercy’s physician group as well as leading a community master planning process. Prior roles with Mercy include senior vice president – Operations for Mercy Hospital Ardmore in Oklahoma., chief operating officer for Mercy Hospital Oklahoma City, and interim CEO of Mercy Health Oklahoma Communities. Before joining Mercy, Jeff held several leadership positions over a six-year period with MetroHealth System in Cleveland, Ohio. Jeff holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Southern Nazarene University in Bethany, Okla., and a master’s in business administration and hospital and health administration from Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio.
RON LEVY, MHA- Moderator Former Executive-in-Residence, Department of Health Management and Policy, College for Public Health & Social Justice, Saint Louis University
Ron Levy just completed a five year term as executive-in -residence at Saint Louis University School of Public Health. He is the former director of the Missouri Department of Social Services (DSS) where he led one of the largest departments in state government, with 7,760 employees, a budget of $7.7 billion and a mission to "maintain or improve the quality of life for Missouri citizens". Levy was appointed DSS director by Governor Jay Nixon in January 2009. Levy also served as the health policy advisor for the Governor and as the Health Information Technology (HIT) coordinator for Missouri to lead the initial development of a statewide health information exchange network. Before joining state government, Levy worked in the health care field for 35 years. Since starting out as a rural hospital administrator in Wisconsin, Levy has served in a variety of executive roles, most recently as president and chief executive officer for SSM Health St. Louis, a member of the 10th largest Catholic health system in the country and the first health care recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. SSM St. Louis has 11,000 employees and a revenue base of $1 billion. Over the past 20 years, Levy has been engaged with health care and community leaders, in the critical regional and state issue of protecting the safety net and improving access to health care. Levy has held leadership positions on the local, state and national level, including the National Health Policy Forum, the Missouri Foundation for Health and the St. Louis Regional Health Commission. He has also served as adjunct faculty member and guest lecturer at Saint Louis University and Washington University. Levy received his Bachelor of Arts degree and a master's degree in health services administration, both from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.